Kitab-ı bahriye (Turkish Edition) [Pirı̂ Reis] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Hardcover Editors: Translator: pages. In between his wars, he retired to Gallipoli to devise a first World map, in , then his two versions of Kitab I-Bahriye ( and ), and then his second. English: Originally composed in AH/AD and dedicated to Sultan Süleyman I (“The Magnificent”), this great work by Piri Reis (d.
|Published (Last):||19 January 2013|
|PDF File Size:||17.61 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||15.9 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Introduction The Turkish navy are famous for their endless battles fought for Islam, from around the late eleventh century to the twentieth, from the most further western parts of the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean and the Straight of Hormuz.
This aspect, however, kktabi much else of Islamic science has been completely set aside. Hess puts it bahriyw European historians were only preoccupied with the identification of their own history. Once such questions were answered, the study of Bahriy history became the task of small, specialized disciplines, such as Oriental studies, which occupied a position in the periphery of the Western historical profession. Although Hess observes one or two improvements by the time he was writing, the picture was bahrkye the same as nearly a decade later after him, Brice and Imber in a note addressed to the Geographical Bahrjye, observed that although European charts of the Mediterranean have received much focus, none has seriously considered similar Turkish maps.
Goodrich, in a pioneering work,7 also went a long way to correct the overall impression, giving excellent accounts of the Ottoman descriptions of the New World as it was then being discovered in all its strangeness, variety and richness.
Amidst the Turkish men of the sea of great repute, Piri Reis is by far the one with the greatest legacy. There are two entries on him in the Encyclopaedia of Islam. The first by F.
Category:Piri Reis, Kitab-ı Bahriye (Walters MS 658)
Babinger 8 and the second by Soucek. That of Barbinger, also out-dated, still offers a good variety of notes of primary sources likely to serve a devotee or researcher.
Piri Reis – the Naval Commander. Piri Reis was born towards in Gallipoli. He began his maritime life under the command of his, then, illustrious uncle, Kemal Reis toward the end of the fifteenth and early centuries.
He fought many naval battles alongside his uncle, and later also served under Khair eddin Barbarossa. In between his wars, he retired to Gallipoli to devise a first World map, inthen his two versions of Kitab I-Bahriye andand then his second World Map in Mystery surrounds his long silence from betweenwhen he made the second of the two maps, and his re-appearing in the mid 16th as a captain of the Ottoman fleet in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Piri Bbahriye first World Map inof which only one fragment is left shows the Atlantic with the adjacent coasts of Europe, Africa and the New World. The second World map fromof which about one sixth has survived, covers the north western part of the Atlantic, and the New World from Venezuela to New Found Land as well as the kltabi tip of Greenland.
The fragment of the first World map discovered in at the Topkapi Museum palacesigned by Piri Reis, and dated Muharram 9 March-7 April is only part of the world of the map which the author handed over to the Sultan Selim in Cairo in the year The German scholar, P.
Kahle iitabi, had made a thorough analysis and description of it12, observing that Piri Reis was an excellent and reliable cartographer.
Kahle also points out that the whole picture of Columbus has been distorted, as nearly all the important documents related to him, and in particular his ship’s journal, have been preserved not in their original but in abstracts and edited works, mostly by Bishop Las Casas. Hapgood’s position seems bahriy to edge on the ridiculous, not just for its exuberant assertions, and his stretching of evidence to beyond the fictional, but also in view of recent works on the history of mapping.
The recent voluminous work by Harley and Woodward, by far the best on the subject, shows in rich detail, the meritorious role of Muslim cartography and nautical science. As for Kahle’s original find, one regret he expresses, was that the fragment found in the Topkapi Museum was only one from an original map, which included the Seven seas, Mediterranean, India, Persia, East Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Red Seathat’s the world in its vastness, and at a very early date.
The search for the other parts has remained fruitless. The matter of Piri Reis’ World Maphowever exciting, can be the object of a subsequent study; here, focus will be placed on his Kitab i-Bahriye.
Kahle, again, pioneered kittabi study of this work in two volumes. Esin made a good task of the Tunisian coast,21 but on this latter country, it is Soucek’s account which really gives most satisfaction. And Goodrich informs that the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism has recently published a four volume book of such Kitab.
There are two versions of the Kitab. The first dates from and the second from five years later. There are many differences between the two. The first was primarily aimed for sailors, the second, on the other hand, was rather more a piece of luxury; which Piri Reis offered as a gift to the Sultan.
It was endowed with craft designs, its maps drawn by master calligraphers and painters, and even seen by wealthy Ottomans of the sixteenth as an outstanding example of bookmaking.
For a century or more manuscript copies were produced, tending to become ever more luxurious, prized items for collectors and gifts for important people. Interestingly it also refers to the European voyages of discovery, including the Portuguese entry in the Indian Ocean and Columbus’s discovery of the New World. There are around thirty manuscripts of the Kitab al-Bahriye scattered all over libraries in Europe.
Most manuscripts two third are of the first version.
Soucek gives an excellent inventory of the location and details of both versions,33 amongst which are the following: Nautical instructions in Kitab I-Bayrye. Translation of the Kitab: Kitab-i balhriye translated by Hess as Book of Sea Lore ,34 is what is commonly known as a portulani.
It is the only ktabi portolanaccording to Goodrich of the two seas Mediterranean and Aegean Seas ever done, and caps both in text and in charts over two hundred years of development by Mediterranean mariners and scholars.
And in his introduction, Piri Reis mentions that he had earlier designed a map of the world which deals with the very recent discoveries of the time, in the Indian and Chinese seas, discoveries known to nobody in kjtabi territory of the Rum. Bahruye also gives reasons for making his compilation: Therefore only three points can fit into a space of ten miles, and there are places of less than ten miles.
On this reckoning only nine points will fit into a space of thirty miles. It is therefore impossible to include on the map a number of symbols, such as those showing cultivated bhariye derelict places, harbours and waters, reefs and shoals in the sea, on what side of the aforementioned harbours they occur, for which winds the harbours are suitable and for which they are contrary, how many vessels they will contain and so on.
For this reason, cartographers draw on a parchment a map, which they can use for broad stretches of coast and large islands. But in confined spaces they will a pilot. And whilst Piri Reis notes that his Kitab will supply enough good detail to obviate the need for a pilot, this passage also shows his familiarity with small scale portolans of the Mediterranean, his kitab being designed to overcome their shortcomings. The contents of Kitab-I Bahriye are organized in chapters, of them in the first version, and in the second.
Each is accompanied by a map of the coast or the island in question. In Harley’s, alongside Soucek’s article, are beautiful maps and charts of the island of Khios, the Port of Novograd, the city of Venice, the Island of Djerba etc. In places, Piri Reis follows his predecessors that include Bartolomoeo della Sonetti himself having found inspiring himself in previous Islamic sources. On the whole, though, Piri Reis brings many improvements.
Description of the Mediterranean Coasts.
Piri Reis – Wikipedia
Maps one, two, kitaib and four bear an extraordinary beauty, and map three f. The wealth of information in Kitab I-Bahriye is articulated in the series of articles on the Mediterranean coasts. The French coast ,49 here briefly summarized, includes four maps, and delves on some important locations such as the city of Nice, or Monaco, which Piri Reis observes, offers good possibilities for anchorage.
Marseilles, its port and coastline, receive greater focus; and from there, it is said, French naval expeditions are organized and launched. The Languedoc region, from Cape of Creus to Aigues Mortes, is inventoried in every single detail, too: Kitab I-Bahriye thus offering, not just accurate information to sailors, but also pictures of places of times long gone to readers and researchers.
The southern shores of the Mediterranean, however, capture even greater focus. They were the natural base of the Turks led by Kemal rais, and amongst whom was also Piri Reis.
The description of the Tunisian coast, in particular, deserves thorough consideration. Mantran’s 50 study although adequate is less worthy than Soucek’s, which is here relied upon. Soucek uses the term Tunisia but recognizes that Ifriqyah kitbi more correct note 16, p. At the time, though, both places were under the Hafsid dynastic rule. The Muslims of North Africa, as a rule, welcomed the Turks not as aliens but as allies p.
At the time, the inhabitants of North Africa were, indeed, under constant threat of attacks by European pirates, who often came disguised as Muslims in order to capture Muslims note 4, p. Turkish seamen used those southern shores to rest between their expeditions to the north and to the West, and often wintered in one of the harbors or islands, and this is how Piri Reis became familiar with these shores p.
The city’s ruler was called Abdurrahmanrelated to the Sultan of Tunis, a family descendant from Ommar Ibn al-Khatabhe holds p. He observes that among all the cities of the Maghreb, none would offer a spectacle comparable to it.
Kiatbi Reis must have seen the Hammadite palaces and was so impressed by ktabi before they were destroyed by the Spaniards when they took the city note 2 page When the Spaniards, indeed, took the city inthey forced the population to flee to the mountains, settled part of it, and razed the rest p. Kitai Reis moves onto Jijel and the region around, noting that it was under the rule of Bejaia prior to the Spanish take overunder the protection of Aroudj Barbarosa p.
Further to the east, his attention is caught by Stora, now part of Skikdaits ruined fortress, and the large river which flows in front of its harbor, its water, he notes, tasting like that of the Nile. Before crossing into today’s Tunisia, Piri Reis notes the presence of lions in the Bone Annaba region p. Piri Reis begins his exploration of Tunisia proper with Tabarka, drawing attention that safe anchorage is on the western side, where it was navigable, and water deep enough.
South of the island of Calta Galitehe notes great danger when southern winds blow. Further on, at Tunis, great interest is in its climate, commerce, its rulers and their rivalries.
In each of these gardens, were villas and kiosks, pools and fountains, and the scent of jasmine overpowering the air. There were water wheels, too, and so many fruit people hardly paid any attention to them. The city was visited by Venetians and Genoese traders, their ships loading with goods before departing; their site of anchorage in the port nine miles in front of the city p.
The harbor of Tunis itself is a bay which opens toward the north, and anchorage, he points out, is seven fathoms deep, the bottom even, and the holding ground good. Further safety of the port is secured from enemy fleets by the means of a tower with a canon guarding it p. To Cape Cartage, also called cape Marsa, uninterrupted bahtiye is secure, and ships can winter all over the ports. Danger lies, however, in the vicinity of the island of Zembra, which is exposed most particularly to southerly winds, whilst rocks often covered by water p can be very treacherous.
Along the Hammamet coast, the baheiye has shallow waters, an even bottom and white sand. The depth bauriye the open sea, one mile kifabi, is four to five fathoms. Water, however, is too shallow for large vessels bajriye. The island of Kerkena offers excellent anchorage conditions regardless of the severity of the sea storms; hence an ideal place for wintering p.
The same goes about Sfax.
Around Kerkenna, however, he notes, is the constant threat of European pirates, especially where waters are deep enough to allow the incursion of their large boats. The island of Djerba, of all places, is what attracts most attention pp kotabi Piri Reis goes into the detail of its people, history, customs, economy, and, of course, of the sailing conditions close and around the island, including anchorage, nature of currents, tides, and risks to sailors.