La présente étude porte sur la réception russe de l’ouvrage d’Edward Saïd, Orientalisme. Même si cet ouvrage ne parle que très peu de la Russie, un certain . PDF | Mehmet Ümit Necef: Sex and Orientalism – with Gustave Flaubert in Hamam In his influential study “Orientalism“ Edward Said almost demonises the. Orientalisme d’Edward Said. Nilgun Tutal. Uploaded by. Nilgun Tutal. Download with Google Download with Facebook or download with email.
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As for Russia itself, the book remains relatively understudied. I explain why Said orifntalisme been largely ignored in Russia, as well as the appropriation of his ideas by the nationalist right.
The entire history of the relationship between East and West, from the Greeks in antiquity through the orentalisme of the Crusades in the Middle Ages, and extending up to the modern and contemporary era… [was marked] by attempts [on the part of the West] to enslave the East…rendering the East voiceless… [Naturally] this sinister enterprise [was] reflected in the scholarship orientalizme the East.
They would also guess that the passages are from his influential book ofOrientalismwhich argued that European academics studied Asia all the better to subjugate it 1. In fact, they were written by two Soviet academics. The resemblance of these two Stalin-era texts to the American-Palestinian literary critic is no coincidence. With a homoerotic painting of a young boy wielding an enormous phallic snake on its cover, the paperback enjoys cult status on university campuses throughout North America.
They range from such predictable works as Orientalism and the Constructions of Empire in British Romanticism and Orientalism, Oriengalisme and the Other in Seventeenth and Eighteenth-Century French Theatreto edgier contributions to scholarship, like Othering around Technology: However, the case is somewhat different in Russia. Said himself did not have much to say about the matter. His book was mostly about 19th and 20th-century Britain and France, and he virtually ignored other European nations with a strong orientological tradition, such as Germany, the Netherlands and Russia.
At the same time, Russia spans both Europe and Asia. Adding to the confusion is the fact that many Russians had Asian roots themselves — and were quite conscious of the fact. This was not necessarily because Slavists are particularly obtuse. But many Occidentals still see Russia itself as Oriental.
Attitudes have not much changed from those expressed by a 16th-century English traveller, George Turbeville: The manners are so Turkish like, the men so full of guile, The women wanton, temples stuft with idols that defile The seats that sacred ought to be.
The Curious Fate of Edward Said in Russia
The customs are so quaint, As if I were to describe edwarf whole, I fear my pen would faint 8. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union, most denied that it was colonialist in the Western sense.
Postcolonialism simply had no place in Russian and Soviet studies. According to Alexander Etkind: Just a few decades ago, the idea that Ukraine or edwarrd Central Asia were colonies of the Soviet Empire evoked furious resistance on both sides of the Iron Curtain.
Things move fast in the postcolonial world 9.
Much like religion, which had been virtually ignored in the Russian context but is now the subject of much academic attention, the study of Empire and Nationality became relevant. During the Cold War, these had been marginalised as everyone pondered such questions as the origins asid the Revolution or the rise of the working class.
Some of the most prominent writers of the Golden Age of Russian letters, like Alexander Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov and Aleksandr Bestuzhev-Marlinskii, saw the action first hand, whether as soldiers or travellers. Strongly influenced by Byronic Romanticism, orienhalisme work often touched on the Caucasian exotic. In her study of Russian literary depictions of the conquest of ecward Caucasus Susan Layton points out that, when early 19th-century Russian poets found their muse in the Orient, they were following a broader European trend.
If, like Lord Byron, these Russians also travelled to the East, they rarely did so by going abroad. At the same time, their attitudes were not just shaped by the peculiarities of political geography. By contrast, the Slavophiles, championed a distinctly different path. However, even if the Slavophiles saw Russia as very different from the Graeco-Roman tradition, they never considered themselves to be Asian.
Russians thought about the Orient in a variety of ways. While some saw it as a source of mystery, danger, and malevolence, many others had more benign and even positive views.
In the 19th century, such ideas were often to be found on the right, edwadr those opposed to such pernicious Western phenomena as civil liberties, secular humanism, parliamentary democracy, and market capitalism.
The east believes no less than we do […] [in] the most precious of our national traditions — autocracy. Without it, Asia would be incapable of sincere liking for Russia and of painless identification with her Ettore Lo Gatto argued that Silver Age authors likewise looked to the East to set it apart from the West, albeit with less partisan aims: You have your millions. We are hordes, and hordes, and hordes.
Yes, we are Scythians! With slanting eyes bespeaking greed! The Rosen School not only dominated vostokovedenie Orientology in the late Imperial and early Soviet periods, but also influenced relations with Asian minority nationalities. One of the grimmest reference works in my library is the Bibliographical Dictionary of Oriental Scholars — Victims of Political Repression during the Soviet Erawhose pages contain entries While it was permissible to accuse Western scholarship of imperialism, criticizing Russian vostokovedy of similar motives was not a good career move in the days of Joseph Stalin.
Consequently, its practitioners were not always confident about the superiority of European scholarship.
And in the wake of the Revolution they readily adapted these doubts to Leninist critiques of Western imperialism.
Her intellectual genealogy makes sense. Again written in response to Edward Said, Etkind agrees with his critics that the late Columbia professor ignores Russia. According to Etkind, the process of colonization was both internal and external. What of Russians back in Russia? How has the thought of Edward Said affected orienttalisme His ideas would not have seemed out of place in the early Soviet era.
Nevertheless, most tend to discount its importance to their own country. Histories of Russian vostokovedenie well into the post-Soviet era have largely been institutional narratives or biographical surveys of prominent Orientologists very much in the Soviet vein — albeit without the requisite genuflections to Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin in the introduction The book has gone through two revisions in its English-language original, the second being a 25th anniversary edition with a new preface by the author.
However, it took until for a Russian version to appear Meanwhile that translation was made as a critique of Western Orientology, largely echoing earlier, Soviet-era views that British, French and American scholarship of the East was subordinate to their imperial ambitions. By implication, this was not the case for Russia or the Soviet Union.
As might be expected, leftists were particularly favourable. Edward Said could not take on the Jewish-American propaganda establishment single-handedly, but he explained its structure.
He pointed out the tremendous importance of the struggle for the narrative, the spiritual aspect of the ground war. Said understood that the story told about the world by Anglo-American scholars and editorialists precede physical conquest of the globe, that the discourse of meek professors camouflage artillery and aircraft carriers Russian graduate students in the Humanities, especially at more Western-Oriented institutions, are familiar with his works However, many still deny its applicability to Russia.
But they argue that they apply solely to the West for the very same reasons that Said indirectly appropriated the earlier Soviet discourse about Capitalist Orientalism as a tool of Occidental imperialism.
Since Russia is neither Western oriehtalisme imperialist, it could not possibly apply to its own understanding of Asia. One clear example is that the leading institution for scholarship about the East still proudly calls itself the Oriental Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. If in the West, Edward Said has made what was once a neutral term highly pejorative, its Russian equivalent, vostokovedeniebears no such stigma.
AdamovskyEzequiel, Euro-Orientalism: Liberal Ideology and the Image of Russia oriwntalisme France c. AhmadAijaz, In Theory: Nations, Classes, LiteraturesLondon, Verso, EtkindExward, Internal Colonization: FerrariAldo, La foresta i la steppa: GeraciRobert P. Moscow Higher School of Economics, IrwinRobert, For Lust of Knowing: Russian Orientalism in the Service of Empire? KogureShuzo, Othering around Technology: Govorunova, Saint Petersburg, Russkii Mir,p.
LaytonSusan, Russian Literature and Empire: LievenDominic, Empire: Brjusov e Gli Sciti di A. SahniKalpani, Crucifying the Orient: Zapadnye kontseptsii Vostokatrans.
Edwsrd, Saint Petersburg, Russkii Mir, Schimmelpenninck van der OyeDavid, Russian Orientalism: Irwin, For Lust of Knowingnor, for that matter, some prominent cultural theorists on the left. Ahmad, In Theoryp. History, Theory and the ArtsJ. The classic overview of the development of Orientology in Imperial Russia remains V.
Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, Russian Orientalism. Etkind, Internal Colonizationp. For a discussion of Russia as empire more generally, see, among other, D. Layton, Russian Literature and Empirep. Danilevskii, Rossiia i Evropa.
Hauner, What Is Asia to Us? Sahni, Crucifying the Orientand E.