May 6, 2020

This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. All the Controls products ASTM C standard. Enter now!. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as C – 05a. 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website,

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Cement mill certificates contain information that can prove useful for tracking changes in your concrete and controlling variability in your mix design.

Atoms are comfortable with themselves when they atm fully loaded on that outer band. Federal Highway Administration, fhwa.

Filling in the Blanks on Alkali-Silica Reaction

Map cracking, also known as three-point cracking, can cause other issues as well, such as shrinkage. Many 1c260 C to be the best test method for evaluating deleterious ASR potential because it provides the strongest correlation to field performance.

Although cement fineness and clinker satm content did not affect the classification in terms of potential reactivity of the aggregates used in this study, they might change the classification for the aggregates near the boundary between reactive and nonreactive aggregates. What we do know, however, is important for precasters to understand. For ASR to occur, four things must be present: Petrographic examination can conclusively identify ASR.

Search Enter search terms: In addition to discovering ASR, he was the first to explain that expansion was negligible when the alkali content of the cement was below 0. If you can read like a chemist, it looks like this: It is important to understand the benefits and deficiencies offered by c11260 testing procedures. When siliceous aggregate is attacked by an alkali solution, it is converted to a viscous alkali c1620 gel.

Knowing this is essential to understand what needs to be done to mitigate this destructive process.

ASTM C, Test equipment Controls

While the fundamental physical and chemical reactions remain poorly understood, it is well known that ASR destroys the durability of concrete and can cause serious maintenance and reconstruction costs. A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance to this elusive subject.


That is, if you have questions about the durability of your concrete, save some samples and leave them exposed to the elements. ASR can be avoided with a proper concrete mix design.

Filling in the Blanks on Alkali-Silica Reaction

For precasters in identified ASR areas, the following methods for new concrete may be the most critical: You have just begun the journey into understanding your own materials as they relate to ASR. That, honestly, is about as simple as I can explain this reaction. Determined to understand more, I have spent the past several weeks diving into qstm mysteries of ASR using recent reports from the Federal Highway Administration and various other scholarly professionals in an effort to fill in the blanks.

Photo provided by Frank Bowen. Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications. Publication Version Published Version. C2160 repository is part of the Iowa Research Commons.

If ASR has been identified by the specifying authority within the region, it is recommended that precast producers perform long-term testing on concrete samples. This is all critical to ASR to show where the reactivity is taking place.

ASTM C1260 – 14

Skip to main content. This test exposes specimens to a solution of sodium hydroxide NaOH. Stanton, began his research on a few of these structures and found an expansive reaction between cement and aggregate taking place.

The cracks radiate from the interior of the aggregate out into the surrounding paste.

Mitigation methods can be split into those methods suitable for new concrete and those that can be used for existing structures. Ask your aggregate provider first for test results before contacting a laboratory. As stated earlier, many precasters will not have issues with ASR. This test is similar to C with a testing period of 14 days. By Frank Bowen A s I scrolled through the few articles and reports I have collected over the past decade regarding alkali-silica reactions, I began to realize I had developed an ignorance ashm this elusive subject.


When lithium, sodium or potassium lose their single outermost electron, they become positively charged. Petrography may be used to classify an aggregate as potentially reactive, but expansion testing is required to determine the extent of the reactivity and appropriate levels of prevention.

The effects of clinker alkali content, aggregate reactivity, and sodium hydroxide NaOH solution concentration on the mortar expansion test results were also studied. Regardless, here is a list of key ASR points for precasters to know: Development of a more economical and more abundant admixture may be the future for ASR mitigation. Highly reactive aggregate tended to be more sensitive to cement fineness and alkalinity.

The results show that mortar-bar expansion was promoted with increased cc1260 fineness regardless of clinker alkali, aggregate reactivity, or soak solution normality. Then simply check on them periodically and record your results. Asgm new ASTM standard and related AASHTO provisional standard provides detailed protocols and guidelines using previous ASR testing data, petrography and historical performance to provide a prescriptive decision-making process for mitigation. Cracking usually appears in areas with a frequent supply of moisture.

Keep in mind that some cements contain a higher proportion of potassium sulfate K 2 SO 4 than sodium sulfate Na 2 SO 4. Comments Frank, Great article that gives a simplified overview of ASR, expansion testing, and mitigation techniques. The same goes for calcium, but since it is in the second column of the periodic table, it must lose two electrons for this to happen.

These empty voids, when created, allow the gel to migrate into the cracks. However, C takes one year to perform when evaluating aggregate reactivity, or two years when evaluating the efficacy of SCMs to mitigate deleterious expansion.

This method is one of the best ways to see ASR happen if you intentionally use aggregates with a high silica content like glass in concrete. Overall, ASR is characterized primarily by four main features: